2017年12月英语四级 语法常考考点之动名词

偎麻雀 2019-06-13 08:30175http://www.yuanfen365.comadmin

    1. 动名词在句子中的作用

  1)作主语

  Meeting you has been a great pleasure.

  Climbing mountains needs a lot of energy and strength.

  Seeing is believing.

  动名词也可以在下面两类结构中作主语。

  a) It’s no use trying to persuade him.

  It’s no good waiting here. Let’s walk home.

  It’s nice meeting you.

  It’s a waste of time arguing about it.

  b) There is no denying the fact that we have been defeated.

  There is no joking about the matter.

  注意:there be作主语时,此时用there being 结构,其否定式为there not being或there being no。但是如果there前面有介词for,则用for there to be。

  There being an index to this book is a great advantage.

  There not being an index to this book is a disadvantage.

  For there to be so modern a library in this rural area is surprising.

  2)作动词宾语

  有些动词后面接动名词作宾语,如:suggest, avoid, resist, deny, give up, put off, postpone, consider, practice, anticipate, admit, acknowledge, appreciate, can’t resist, defer, delay, detest, dislike, enjoy, escape, fancy, mind, finish, imagine, miss, resent, risk等。

  We suggested putting off the meeting till next week.

  He tried his best to avoid seeing her.

  I can’t resist bargaining.

  We appreciate your helping us.

  They denied doing anything wrong.

  It is really hard for a person to give up smoking.

  注意:need, want, deserve, require等动词之后,作宾语的动名词用主动形式表示被动意义。

  My hair needs cutting.

  Those flowers require/want watering.

  He deserved congratulating.

  3) 作介词宾语

  John talked us into walking home with him.

  They insisted on doing the work at once.

  He got so angry that he felt like slapping her.

  They have got accustomed to living in the rural village.

  We have great difficulty (in) carrying out our plan.

  注意:

  a) 有些不及物动词后面常跟介词to,如object to, look forward to, confess to, devote… to, contribute to, admit to, be used to, see to(负责), submit to, resort to, take to, reconcile to, be (get) accustomed to等。

  No wonder there is not any objection to having a camping.

  We have been looking forward to your visiting us.

  The suspect confessed to having committing a crime.

  We young people should devote ourselves to building a strong socialist society.

  b) 有些短语中的介词in常被省略,如be busy (in), spend time (in), have trouble/difficulty (in), have a good time (in)等。这些短语后面须接动名词作宾语。

  They have been busy reviewing their lessons all these days.

  Don’t spend too much time playing basketball. The final exam is coming.

  Do you have any trouble understanding me?

  c) 介词worth之后用动名词主动形式表示被动意义。

  The novel is worth reading.

  This is a book well worth looking for.

  d) there be作介词宾语时,用there being。但是如果作介词for的宾语,则用 there to be。

  He was very angry at there being objection to his proposal.

  They planned for there to be another meeting.

  4)作定语,而且只能作前置定语

  The old man needs terribly a walking stick to help him.

  The workers were building a big swimming pool in our town.

  a diving board(跳水板)

  a sleeping cart(卧铺车厢)

  a sleeping pill(安眠药)

  a singing competition(歌咏比赛)

  5)作表语

  My job is teaching Chinese.

  Seeing is believing.

  The only thing that interests her is dancing.

  Denying this will be shutting one’s eyes to facts.

  2. 动名词的逻辑主语

  一个动名词短语前面可以加一个物主代词或一个名词(所有格),来表示这个动名词逻辑上的主语。这种结构可以用来:

  1)作主语

  Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us.

  It’s no use your telling me not to worry.

  His grumbling irritated me.

  注意:动名词作主语时,其逻辑主语只能用人称代词所有格或名词所有格。

  2)作宾语

  Do you mind my opening the door?

  They insisted on my staying there till the next day.

  There will be no any chance of my seeing him again.

  I certainly enjoyed Kate’s singing.

  They are looking forward to Mary’s coming.

  注意:动名词短语作宾语时,这个结构常常可以用名词的普通格(或人称代词宾格),这比用所有格更自然些。

  I don’t mind Susan (her) going with him.

  Adults usually don’t like young people (them) smoking.

  3)作表语

  【例如】

  Our only worry is your depending too much on your parents.

  What’s troubling them is their not having enough machines.

  What we felt uneasy about was Bruce’s having no confidence in himself.

     3. 动名词的完成体

  表示过去发生的动作时,可以用动名词的完成体来代替动名词的一般式。

  The captain was accused of having deserted his ship.

  He denied having been there.

  I will overlook your having been rude to my brother this time.

  4. 动名词与不定式在用法上的比较

宝石迷阵3_招财猫官网:2017年12月英语四级 语法常考考点之动名词

Copyright © 2002-2017 宝石迷阵3_招财猫官网 版权所有 备案号:鄂ICP备12013441号-2 鄂公网安备61032703000303